Exceptions may be granted in the form of Article II exceptions. Members could apply for such exemptions before the agreement came into force. New derogations may only be granted to new members at the time of accession or, in the case of current members, by a derogation under Article IX:3 of the WTO agreement. All exceptions are subject to review; they should not, in principle, last more than 10 years. In addition, the GATS allows groups of members to enter into economic integration agreements or to mutually recognize regulatory standards, certificates and others when certain conditions are met. back-office operations with higher added value than basic data entry. This includes not only more traditional data collection and processing, but also electronic publishing, site design and management, customer call centre, medical records management, hotel reservations, credit card authorizations, remote secretarial services, online technical assistance, indexing and abstraction services, research and technical writing, and technical writing. Manufacturers are increasingly attributing product design, logistics management, research and development, and support for after-sales service. In addition, the Air Services Annex exempts air duty and service measures directly related to the exercise of these rights. Raising awareness of the contribution of services exports to the economy. Members are free to tailor the coverage of the sector and the content of these commitments as they see fit. Commitments therefore generally reflect the objectives and constraints of national policy as a whole and in different sectors.
While some members have provided fewer than a handful of services, others have adopted market access and national processing disciplines in more than 120 services out of a total of 160. The development of a joint private and public sector initiative to assess the effects (positive or negative) of trade liberalization in services. While the concept of progressive liberalisation is one of the fundamental principles of the GATS, Article XIX provides that liberalisation takes place in accordance with national political objectives and the level of development of members, both in the various sectors and in the various sectors. Developing countries will thus have flexibility to open fewer sectors, liberalize fewer types of transactions and gradually expand market access depending on their development situation. Other provisions ensure that developing countries have greater flexibility in implementing the policy of economic integration, maintaining constraints on the reasons for the balance of payments and determining access and use of their telecommunications networks and services. In addition, developing countries are entitled to technical assistance from the WTO secretariat. Dorothy Riddle is an ITC trade advisor. E-mail: email@example.com While services currently account for more than two-thirds of world output and employment, they account for no more than 25% of total trade, as measured by the balance of payments. But this apparently modest proportion should not be underestimated. Indeed, the balance of payments statistics do not cover one of the types of services defined in the GATS, i.e.
the supply by commercial presence in another country (mode 3).