The agreement between the EU and Iran on the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is the culmination of 20 months of „work-intensive“ negotiations.  In the same letter, Obama explained the possible unilateral and non-military multilateral reactions that Iran would have to violate if Iran violated the agreement, but the president said, „Ultimately, it is important to keep the flexibility to decide what reactive measures we and our allies deem appropriate for any non-compliance.“  Flexibility meant that Obama had previously opposed the establishment of „sanctions for minor violations of the agreement.“  The agreement followed the Joint Action Plan (JPA), an interim agreement between the P5-1 powers and Iran, reached in Geneva on 24 November 2013. The Geneva agreement was an interim agreement in which Iran agreed to reduce part of its nuclear program in exchange for the exemption of certain sanctions. This came into effect on January 20, 2014.  The parties agreed to extend their talks with an initial extension on 24 November 2014 and a second extension period set for 1 July 2015.  As stipulated by the JCPOA, the agreement was formally approved by the UN Security Council.     There is disagreement as to whether the agreement is legally binding on the United States. [e] In exchange, Iran will be relieved of sanctions of about $7 billion ($4.3 billion) and no additional sanctions will be imposed.   The agreement sets a six-month deadline for a broader follow-up agreement between Iran and the P5-1 negotiators to formalize Iran`s nuclear relations with the world.
 The IAEA and Iran met on 5 May to discuss the revised concept of security. According to the IAEA report of 20 June 2014, Iran had agreed with the Agency on the concept of security. In a January 18 letter to the IAEA, Iran said it would not pursue new uranium enrichment sites during the six months of the agreement. Finally, the joint action plan and subsequent negotiations resulted in an April 2015 framework agreement and a final agreement in July 2015, the Joint Comprehensive Action Plan. In a letter to then-U.S. Elected Official Mike Pompeo, the U.S. State Department said the JCPOA was „not a treaty or an executive agreement and is not a signed document.“  On 24 November 2013, the Joint Action Plan was also known as the Geneva Interim Agreement (ژنو in Persian), a pact signed between Iran and the P5-1 countries in Geneva, Switzerland. It consists of a short-term freeze on parts of Iran`s nuclear program in exchange for reduced economic sanctions against Iran, with countries pledging to reach a long-term deal.  It was the first formal agreement between the United States and Iran in 34 years.  Implementation of the agreement began on 20 January 2014.  THE JPOA is the precursor to the JCPOA. The JPOA proposed a framework that allowed the P5-1 to reach an agreement with Iran on its nuclear program, while the JPOA has always been seen as a temporary measure.
The JCPOA is seen as a long-term solution to Iran`s 15-year nuclear program that will permanently ban Iran from making an atomic bomb. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon hailed the interim agreement as a possible „beginning of a historic agreement.“  On August 4, 2015, three prominent Democrats watched in the Senate announced their support for the agreement by Tim Kaine of Virginia (a member of the Foreign Relations Committee), Barbara Boxer of California (also a member of the Foreign Relations Committee) and Bill Nelson of Florida.  In a speech that day, Kaine said that the agreement was „preferable to any other alternative, including war,“ and „America has respected its best traditions and shown that patient diplomacy can accomplish what isolation and hostility cannot do.“  In a similar speech on the same day, Nelson said, „I am confident that [the agreement] will prevent Iran from developing a nuclear weapon for at least the next 10 to 15 years.