The female asylum seekers were not transferred to PNG until 21 November 2012 to 4 July 2013. Since then, all women (and children) have been transferred to Nauru for treatment. The table below provides an overview of the number of refugee women (excluding minors) living off the coast from 2012 to October 2016. For more than 20 years, a poorly respected provision of U.S. law authorizing the transfer of asylum seekers to a third country for processing was suspended until the end of last month, when the United States and Guatemala signed an agreement that essentially mimics Australia`s „offshore processing“ system. The title „safe third country“ is affixed to the section of the US code, which is supposed to form the national legal basis for the bilateral agreement with Guatemala – 8 STATES.C. . . Who is legally responsible for offshore processing (Kaldor Centre) That changed on July 19, 2013, when Kevin Rudd returned as Prime Minister of Australia. As part of his policy, everyone would be sent to either Nauru or Manus Island. Those who were already on Nauru and PNG were brought back to Australia, where they were waiting for their treatment to resume. As in the 2013 agreement between Australia and Nauru, the agreement between the United States and Guatemala designates a whole category of persons as unprotected in the country, based on their mode of arrival, opening the door to the transfer of a large class of asylum seekers who are not related to Guatemala.
The Interior Ministry said there were urgent difficulties. The Government of Papua New Guinea withdrew in mid-2017 from a months-long commitment to operate Manus` services. The situation has become even more difficult because of the clear reluctance of companies to be associated with Australia`s widely condemned offshore treatment regime. Appendix 1 – List of Offshore Treatment Investigations and Reports Appendix 2 – List of Court Decisions and Related Comments Some people also refer to it as „offshore“ because they have been detained in centres on Nauru or Manus Island. Applicant Part M68-2015 v Minister of Immigration and Border Protection (2016) 257 CLR 42,  HCA 1 (February 3, 2016) A high court has upheld the validity of offshore detention agreements at the Nauru Regional Processing Centre.